March 4, 2021
Whether depression is a prodromal phase or risk factor for dementia is under debate. We aimed to unveil the nature of depression–dementia association by looking into the time window of depression occurrence.
Dementia‐free twins (n = 41,727) from the Swedish Twin Registry were followed‐up for 18 years. Data were analyzed using generalized estimating equation (GEE) for all individuals and conditional logistic regression for co‐twin matched pairs.
In the GEE model, multi‐adjusted odds ratios (ORs; 95% confidence intervals [CIs]) of dementia were 1.46 (1.09–1.95) for mid‐life, 2.16 (1.82–2.56) for late‐life, 2.24 (1.49–3.36) for mid‐ to late‐life, and 2.65 (1.17–5.98) for lifelong depression. The ORs in conditional logistic regression and in GEE did not differ significantly (P = 0.60). Education ≥8 years attenuated dementia risk associated with mid‐life depression.
Not only late‐life depression, but also mid‐life depression is associated with dementia. Genetic and early‐life environmental factors could not account for this association. Education ≥8 years might buffer the impact of mid‐life depression on dementia.
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Author: Wenzhe Yang,
Nancy L. Pedersen,